# Digital Logic¶

Logic gates can be drawn by importing the `schemdraw.logic.logic`

module:

```
from schemdraw import logic
```

Logic gates are shown below. Gates define anchors for out and in1, in2, etc. Buf, Not, and NotNot, and their Schmitt-trigger counterparts, are two-terminal elements that extend leads.

Gates with more than 2 inputs can be created using the inputs parameter. With more than 3 inputs, the back of the gate will extend up and down.

```
logic.Nand(inputs=3)
```

```
logic.Nor(inputs=4)
```

Finally, any input can be pre-inverted (active low) using the inputnots keyword with a list of input numbers, starting at 1 to match the anchor names, on which to add an invert bubble.

```
logic.Nand(inputs=3, inputnots=[1])
```

## Logic Parser¶

Logic trees can also be created from a string logic expression such as “(a and b) or c” using using `schemdraw.parsing.logic_parser.logicparse()`

.
The logic parser requires the pyparsing module.

Examples:

```
from schemdraw.parsing import logicparse
logicparse('not ((w and x) or (y and z))', outlabel='$\overline{Q}$')
```

```
logicparse('((a xor b) and (b or c) and (d or e)) or ((w and x) or (y and z))')
```

Logicparse understands spelled-out logic functions “and”, “or”, “nand”, “nor”, “xor”, “xnor”, “not”, but also common symbols such as “+”, “&”, “⊕” representing “or”, “and”, and “xor”.

```
logicparse('¬ (a ∨ b) & (c ⊻ d)') # Using symbols
```

Use the gateH and gateW parameters to adjust how gates line up:

```
logicparse('(not a) and b or c', gateH=.5)
```

## Truth Tables¶

Simple tables can be drawn using the `schemdraw.logic.table.Table`

class. This class is included in the logic module as its primary purpose was for drawing logical truth tables.

The tables are defined using typical Markdown syntax. The colfmt parameter works like the LaTeX tabular environment parameter for defining lines to draw between table columns: “cc|c” draws three centered columns, with a vertical line before the last column. Each column must be specified with a ‘c’, ‘r’, or ‘l’ for center, right, or left justification Two pipes (||), or a double pipe character (ǁ) draw a double bar between columns. Row lines are added to the table string itself, with either — or === in the row.

```
table = '''
A | B | C
---|---|---
0 | 0 | 0
0 | 1 | 0
1 | 0 | 0
1 | 1 | 1
'''
logic.Table(table, colfmt='cc||c')
```

## Karnaugh Maps¶

Karnaugh Maps, or K-Maps, are useful for simplifying a logical truth table into the smallest number of gates. Schemdraw can draw K-Maps, with 2, 3, or 4 input variables, using the `schemdraw.logic.kmap.Kmap`

class.

```
logic.Kmap(names='ABCD')
```

The names parameter must be a string with 2, 3, or 4 characters, each defining the name of one input variable. The truthtable parameter contains a list of tuples defining the logic values to display in the map. The first len(names) elements are 0’s and 1’s defining the position of the cell, and the last element is the string to display in that cell. The default parameter is a string to show in each cell of the K-Map when that cell is undefined in the truthtable.

For example, this 2x2 K-Map has a ‘1’ in the 01 position, and 0’s elsewhere:

```
logic.Kmap(names='AB', truthtable=[('01', '1')])
```

K-Maps are typically used by grouping sets of 1’s together. These groupings can be drawn using the groups parameter. The keys of the groups dictionary define which cells to group together, and the values of the dictionary define style parameters for the circle around the group. Each key must be a string of length len(names), with either a 0, 1, or . in each position. As an example, with names=’ABCD’, a group key of “1…” will place a circle around all cells where A=1. Or “.00.” draws a circle around all cells where B and C are both 0. Groups will automatically “wrap” around the edges. Parameters of the style dictionary include color, fill, lw, and ls.

```
logic.Kmap(names='ABCD',
truthtable=[('1100', '1'),
('1101', '1'),
('1111', '1'),
('1110', '1'),
('0101', '1'),
('0111', 'X'),
('1101', '1'),
('1111', '1'),
('0000', '1'),
('1000', '1')],
groups={'11..': {'color': 'red', 'fill': '#ff000033'},
'.1.1': {'color': 'blue', 'fill': '#0000ff33'},
'.000': {'color': 'green', 'fill': '#00ff0033'}})
```